11.5

Sugars are the sweet tasting members of the carbohydrate family. Examples that you may recognize included glucose and free to this, but naturally occurring in fruits, vegetables, and honey. Starch, a polymer of glucose introduced in chapter 4, is another carbohydrate. It is found in nearly all types of grains, potatoes, and rice. Other pleasing to our taste buds,*shellac’s a sweet taste and takes a bit longer to digest and sugars. Carbohydrates also are used commercially to produce ethanol, and energy source for vehicles. The starch founding corn kind was currently is fermented to produce millions of gallons of ethanol each year. Grapes contain the sugars of choice for many wines; in contrast, barely and we contains the starch used to brew many beers. carbohydrates are compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with H and O atoms found the same 2:1 ratio. However, the H and O Atoms and in carbohydrates are not in the form of H2O molecules. Fructose and glucose both have the same chemical formula, C6O12H6 but different structures. These isomers relatively easy to tell part: glucose has a six member rain and fructose is a five-member drain. Fructose is an example of a monosaccharide, a singular sugar.  However sucrose is a disaccharide, a double singular formed by joining two monosaccharide units. Figure 11.13 inches the chemical reaction that form the sucrose molecule, a disaccharide, and releases a water molecule. Monosaccharides also can link to form much bigger molecules. Polysaccharides our condensation polymers made up of thousands of monosaccharide units. Familiar examples of polysaccharides include starch and cellulose. our bodies can digest starch by breaking it down into glucose, we cannot digest cellulose. Consequently, we depend on starchy fruits such as potatoes or pasta rather than devouring toothpicks. The difference in digestive abilities stems from subtitled difference in how the glucose monomers are connected. In figure 11.14, compare the alpha linkage between the glucose units and storage with the beta linkage between glucose units in cellulose. The enzymes of many mammals– including humans are unable to catalyze the breaking of beta linkage in cellulose. In contrast, cows, goats, and sheep, manage to breakdown cellulose with a little help. There digestive tract contain bacteria that decompose cellulose into glucose. When we have excess glucose in our bodies, it is polymerized to glycogen with the help of insulin and store it in her muscles and liver. When our glucose levels slipped below normal, the glycogen is converted back into glucose. Glycogen has a molecular structure similar to that of starch except that its chain of glucose units are longer and more branch. It accumulates in muscles and especially in the liver, where it is available as a quick source of internal energy. 

11.4

People tend to be preoccupied with dietary fat, as sets pack more calories than any other nutrient. Fortunately, our bodies can synthesize almost all fatty acids from the foods be. Exceptions are linoleic and linlenic acids. Figure 11.9 reveals some surprising differences in the composition of fats and oils we consume. For example, flaxseed oil is particularly Rich in alpha-linolenic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is being studied for its health benefits. Ironically, the coconut will use and some nondairy creamer’s contains about 87% saturated fat, far more than the percentage founded in the cream it replaces. Concern over the high degree of saturation in Coconut and palm oil accounts for the statements sometimes printed on food labels. However, the higher degree of on saturation and oils comes with a drawback. You may have noticed a rancid odor that oil has acquired overtime. The reason for this odor is because double C bonds are more susceptible to reactions with the oxygen in the air then single C bonds. One way to fully saturated in oil or a fat is by Hydrogenation, a process in which hydrogen gas, in the presence of an metal catalyst, adds to the C double C bonds and converts it to see single seat runs. You can see this in equation 11.3 a. When oils are hydrogenated, Some or all of their C double C bonds are converted to see single see bonds, increasing the degree of saturation and rising the melting point. By carefully selecting a temperature and pressure, the extent of the Hydrogenation can be controlled in order to your products of the desired melting point, softness, and spread ability. Equation 11.3 B shows this process with linoleum acid, one of the fatty acids in the triglycerides of peanut oil. oleic acid and elaidic asses are Mono unsaturated fatty  acids both have the same chemical formula. You can compare the structures shown in figure 11.10. Trans fats are triglycerides that are composed of one or more trans fatty acids. This funding came as somewhat of a surprise because partially Hydrogenated fats still contains some see double C bonds, and unsaturation is definitely a plus in a healthy diet. However, trans fats are similar and properties to saturated fats. Revisit equation 11.3 B to see the Hydrgenation is not an all or nothing proposition. The fats containing these trans fatty acids closely resemble the shape of saturated fats and therefore behave in similar manner in the body. Food Khemisset also been busy discovering alternatives to Hydrogenation that produce semisolid but do not produce trans fats. Interesterification is any process in which the fatty acids on two or more triglycerides are scrambled to produce and make sure of different triglycerides. 

11.3

As we pointed out earlier when describing bio diesel in chapter 4, the molecules that make up fats and oils share common structural future. They are both triglycerides, that is, molecules that contain three ester functional groups. Fats are triglycerides that our solids at room temperature, where is oils are try the server rides that are liquid at room temperature. We introduced several new terms in this previous paragraph. Like off fatty acids, the steric acid molecule is too important characteristics. One is a long hydrocarbon chain with it an even number of carbon atoms, typically from 12 to 24. This hydrocarbon changes fats and oils their characteristic greasiness. The other is the carboxylic acid group. The carboxylic acid group account for the acid in the name fatty acid. Next we turned to the term glycerol, and I’ll call that we briefly mentioned in chapter 4. This role is a stinky, syrupy liquid that is sometimes added to soaps and and lotions. A fatty acid is saturated if the hydrocarbon chain contains only single bonds between the carbon atoms. In the saturated carbon chai. The C atoms contain the maximum number of H Atoms that can be accommodated and therefore saturated and hydrogen. Unsaturated fatty acids are neither monosaturated or polyunsaturated. For example, oleic acid, with only one double bond between carbon atoms for molecule. It is classified as monounsaturated. In contrast, linoleic acid and linolenic acid are both examples of polyunsaturated fatty acids. A polyunsaturated fatty acid contains more than one double bond between carbon atoms. In figure 11.8, each of the unsaturated fatty acids contain 18 Carbon atoms, but differs in the number of placement of the C double bonds. The three fatty acids that form the triglyceride molecule can be identical, two can be the same, or all three can be different. They also can be sequenced differently in the molecule. And table 11.2 it indicates some treads within a given family of fatty acid. For example, in saturated fatty acids, the melting points increase as the number of carbons per molecule increases. On the other hand in a series of fatty acids with a similar number of carbon atoms, increasing the number of C double bonds decreases the melting point. These trends carry over to triglyceride containing the fatty acids and explain why fats rich in saturated fatty acids are solids at room and body temperature.

 

.

11.2

Whether you sit down to a gourmet meal or gobble junk food on the run, You eat because you need the water, Energy sources, raw materials, micronutrients that food provides. Water, however, cannot be burned as a fuel carbide or anywhere else, for that matter. This compound serves both as a reactant and the product in metabolite reactions .Water is it about 60% of our body. We need food as an energy source to produce muscles, to send nerve impulses, and to transport molecules and irons in our bodies. In addition, food services as the raw the Material for bodies, including new bone, blood cells, enzymes, and hair. Food also supplies nutrients essential for metabolism, The complex set of chemical processes that are essential in maintaining life. Eating properly means more than filling your stomach. It is possible to eat, even to the point of being overweight, and still be malnourished. Malnutrition is caused by a diet lacking in proper nutrients, even though the energy content of the food may be adequate. Contrast malnutrition with undernourishment, A condition in which a person caloric intake is insufficient to meet metallic needs. Today millions and millions people worldwide or malnourished and undernourished yet increasingly others are more overweight than ever before. In 2010, Center for disease control and prevention reported that 60% of all adults in the United States are classified as overweight with nearly half of that population classified as obese. This epidemic of obesity is caused by several factors, including eating the raw foods, eating too much of any foods, and the lack of physical activity. The latter are processed foods, foods that have been altered for their natural state by techniques such as scanning, cooking, freezing, and adding chemicals such as thickeners or preservatives. The typical diet in many countries contains numerous process foods. Processes in the United States must listen nutritional information on their labels.  I do these labels, such as one shown in figure 11.3 come include the Micronutrients the fats, carbohydrates, proteins that provide essential yoga energy and most of the raw material for body repair and synthesis. Sodium and potassium ions are presented in lower concentrations, but they are essential to the proper electrolyte balance in the body. Breakfast table with the similar data for human body. You are what you eat but only through certain extent. If You look it figure 11.4 you’re understand this analogy.

11.1

Throughout history, food has played a pivotal role in human health and well-being. Producing massive amounts of food affects ecosystem that sustain life on our planet. Every day you drink water, perhaps as much as if you liters. You also indirectly consume water daily because water is used to reduce the food you eat. For example, a 2010 UNESCO Report indicated that it requires about 15,000 L of water to bring 1 kg of the protein to the table, enough to make 9/4 pounders. As you can see from the bar graph of figure 11.1 food differs in the amount of land required to produce them. One reason for differences in that green may be needed to feed the animals. Estimates, such as those shown in figure 11.1, are based on a set of assumptions. In general, and me consumption is increasing worldwide. Fueled in large part by the rising affluence I’m people in developing countries. From figure 11.2, we can obtain the approximate values for the projected misconceptions in 2030and 30. Doing the math, this gives us 350 kg of green per person in 2030. By way of comparison, in 2009 the world green production for all uses was approximately 2,000,000,000,000 kg. Although the shortfall possibly could be made up by increasing crop yields this is unlikely as we will see in the final section. 

5.12

Desalination is any process that removes sodium chloride from any mineral from salt water, thus producing potable water. With demand for freshwater ever-increasing, we now are witnessing the construction of many Desalination facilities worldwide including in the Middle East, Spain, United States, China and North Africa. One means of desalination is distillation, a separate process in which a liquid solution is heated and the vapors are condensed and collected. Large-scale distillation operations employ new technologies with impressive names such as Multi stage flash evaporation. Although these technologies have increased Energy efficiency over the basic distillation process shown in figure 5.308. Other than desalination options exist. For example, Osmosis is the passage of water through a semipermeable membrane from a solution that is less concentrated to a solution that is more concentrated. The water just fuses through the membrane and the solute does not. Reverse osmosis uses pressure to force the movement of water through a semipermeable membrane from a solution that is more concentrated to a solution that is less concentrated. Reverse osmosis Technology can be used to reduce more bottled water and what your pure water used in the micro electronic and pharmaceutical industries. With advances in sanitation and management of waterborne diseases over the past century, Many in developed countries have access to drinking water that meets certain centers. Even the condos and natural fiber, its production into significant footprint on the environment. Once produce, rock on must be treated to remove the cuticle. The process of scouring the con requires copious quantities of caustic chemicals, water, and energy. Although freshwater is a renewable source, the demands of population growth, rising affluence and other global issues are amplifying shortages of this essential commodity.

5.11

In a typical water treatment plant, the first step is to pass the water through a screen that physically removes items such as weeds, sticks, and beverage bottles.. Aluminum sulfate and calcium hydroxide are flocculating agents. They reacting water to form a sticky floc of aluminum hydroxide.  The next ritual step comes in next, Disinfectant order to kill disease causing microbes. Chlorination is accomplished by adding chlorine gas, sodium hypochlorite, or calcium hypochlorite. All of these generate the anti-bacteria agent acid. A very low concentration of H CIO, remains to protect the water against further bacteria contamination as it passes through pipes to the user. Residual chlorine refers to the chlorine containing chemicals the remaining water after chlorination staff. These include acid, the hypochlorite ion, dissolve element chloride. Before chlorination, thousands died in an epidemic spread via polluted water. At one point, a shipment of it all hundred thousand tons of chlorine was held it up for a week at the Jordanian border and amid fears 48 safe passage through Iraq. Even in peace time when the transportation of chlorine is relatively safe, chlorination has its drawbacks. The taste and odor of residual chlorine can be objectionable and is commonly cited as a reason why people drink bottled water or use filters. The most widely publicized, trihalomethane, our compound such as CHCI three, CHB are three, CHB RCI 2. many European and few US cities use ozone to disinfect their water supplies. Ozonation  only becomes economical for large water treatment plants. Disinfecting water using ultraviolet light is gaining in popularity. This infections with UVC is fast, leave no residual byproducts, and it’s economical for small installations. Cleaning sewage is more complicated, because it contains waste in the form of organic compounds and nitrate ions. Nitrates and phosphates both contribute to be ODD, as these ions are important nutrients for aquatic life. Some treatment plants are using wetland areas to capture nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates. 

5.10

For each water-soluble contaminant, the EPA Sanderson management content available in the maximum level of the contaminated drinking water at which new millions or parts for billion, MC LGS allows for a margin of safety. And MCL G is not a legal limit to which water systems was complied. Before regulatory action can be taken against the water utility, the concentration of insecurity must exceed the maximum contaminant level, the legal limit for the concentration of a contentment express in parts per million parts per billion. EPA sets legal limits for each impurity as close to the MCL G as possible. water legislation continually needs to be updated. Depending on the particular content, and CL’s range from about 10 ppm to us than one PPb.  Unlike many contaminants, let is the cumulative poison. Severe exposure in adults causes symptoms such as irritability, Sleepiness, an irrational behavior. Fortunately, very little lettuce presented the most public water supplies. I’m not succeeding the allowable limits are estimated to be present in less than 1% of public supply systems. Most of this lead it comes from corrosion of plumbing systems, not from the source water itself. Regulatory values change as research shields new information about contaminants. Where is contentment such as lead can lead to chronic long-term health problems, other substances in drinking water present more immediate and acute effects. Water can also be contaminated by biological agents such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. In addition to the safe drinking water act, other federal legislation controls pollution of lace color rivers, coastal areas. The CWA established limits on the monopoly since that Industry 10 discharge, removing over 1,000,000,000 pounds of toxic pollutants from US waters every year.

5.9

When Sucrose dissolves in water, the sucrose molecules disperse uniformly among the H20 of molecules. The Sucrose molecules remain in tact and do not separate into ions. In figure 5.17b  you see evidence that supports this. However, the sugar molecules do interact with the water molecules, as they’re both polar and our interacted you one another. Furthermore, the sucrose molecules contain eight– Oh groups and three additional o Atoms I can participate in hydrogen bonding. Solubility is always promoted when an interaction exist between the solvent molecules and the solute molecules or ions. The H in the oh group is an ethanol molecule can hydrogen bond. Ethylene glycol is another example of alcohol, sometimes called glycol. Hey Candy added to water, and such as the water in the radiator of your car to keep it from freezing. It is often observed that way you’ll and water don’t next. When water molecules are polar, and the hydrogen molecules and oil or nonpolar. Since water is a whore soul then or grease and oil, we cannot use water to wash these off. These compounds are called surfactants, Compounds that help polar and non polar compounds to mix. The polar groups allow surfactants to dissolve in water while the nonpolar ones are able to dissolve in the grease. Another way to dissolve nonpolar molecules is to use non polar solvents. Nonpolar solvents are widely used, including in the production of drugs, plastics, paints, cosmetics, and cleaning agents. The tendency of nonpolar compounds to dissolve in another nonpolar substance explains how to fish and animals accumulating nonpolar substances such as PCBs or DDT. The higher you go on the food chain, the greater concentrations of harmful nonpolar compounds like DDT you find. This is called biomagnification, The increase of concentration of certain persistent chemicals and successively higher levels of food chain.

5.4

The average price 4000 gallons of tap water in the United States is about $2. In nations where the cost of drinking water is low, people easily decide how frequently the drink. Some people and have a regions where they must walk miles to reach a water source, Philly container, and carryout. Climate plays an important role in the timing for the water cycle and therefore the distribution of water on this planet. Glaciers accumulated snow packs during the winter months and then release I regular stream of water during summer months. Violent storms and floods bring water in for massive abundance. The timing of the water cycle also affects events in earths ecosystem. In many places, water is being pumped out of the ground faster than it is replenished by the natural water cycle. Overdrawing reserves of surface water creates problems as well. Both of these water divers and stories present us with examples of tragedies of the commons. It the water from the aquifers Service water is the resource used in common. If water is overdrawn from agriculture or some other purpose, this act can be the detriment of all who depend on this common and necessary resource. Currently water is being contaminated which could cause sicknesses and diseases. Not all contaminations founded in water are monitored or regulated.