12.1

Oceans, rivers, lakes, and ice covered over 70 percent our planet surface. This leaves less than a third of the surface for the Forest, grasslands, deserts, knives, and feels that we know as land. We grow crops such as wheat, corn, soybean, and rice. Mavis consume it in large amounts both directly and indirectly–directly via products such as high fructose corn syrup, Corn meal, Or cornstarch; indirectly by eating corn fed animals. In addition, corn continues to be an important commodity for nonedible products such as bio base ethanol and plastics. The same is true for soy beans, tomatoes, potatoes, cotton, and papayas, as all of these existing genetically modified forms. A corn field is never simply a field of corn plants, although may appear so. Rather, cornfields cornfields are small unbalanced ecosystems. From the perspective of a corn plan, the cornfield is home, a place with nutrients in the soil, the sunshine above, and lots of water. From the perspective of insects, a cornfield is a nice home, an incubator for the young, and and a very tasty meal. Many insects have evolved to take advantage of the cornfields. If the corners to grow and thrive, farmers must expand time, effort, money, fuel to actively future the plants and protect against insects and weeds. In the process, they may inadvertently damage ecosystems, both locally and further down the watershed. Using pesticides not only is expensive, but also, without enough care in the choice or application, these chemicals may damage the plants in the surrounding ecosystem. The combination of expense in trouble for the farmer coupled with an environmental risk seems difficult to justify, a growing corn is extremely profitable. Q very common genetic modifications in corn can provide the farmer with a crop that is resistant to both insects, such as the European corn borer or Western corn root warm. The corn produces its own insecticide, allowing the farmer to spray less pesticide. And the corn plant is resistant to one general herbicide, meaning the farmer can spray that herbicide rather than others that deposit more toxins in the watershed. This guidebook, termed the genome, is the primary route for inheriting the biological information required to build and maintain an organism. the genome is divided into short sections of instructions to produce specific reactions, chemicals, or events of the South. These specific pieces are The basic units of heredity, genes, short pieces of the genome that code for the production of proteins. A gene for color may switch the corn kernels form light yellow to white. But small changes within a gene or not enough to make the plants produce peas instead of corn or even to producing new chemical. Rather than create these instructions ourself, we search for another organism that already has the instructions we want. A group of small organisms, a soiled bacterium called bacillus thuringiensis, already has the instructions to make this protein. By taking Regina out of the bacterium and inserting it into the corn plant, we create corn plants that can produce an insecticidal protein. 

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