11.8

Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients, substances that are needed only in Ministry amounts but still are essential to your life. Nearly everyone in United States knows that vitamins and minerals are important, But a thriving multimillion dollar supplement Industry reminds any who forget. Vitamins organic compounds with a wide range of physiological functions. Although only small amounts are needed in the diet, and vitamins are essential for good health, proper metabolic functioning, and preventing disease. They can be classified on the basis of being water or fat-soluble. For example, examine the structural formula of vitamin A shown figure 11.19 to see that it contains almost every exclusively C and H atoms. As a result, vitamin A is an nonpolar compound, lipid-soluable, and similar to the hydrocarbons derived from petroleum. Water soluble vitamins often contain several -OH groups that can hydrogen bond with water molecules. The solubility of vitamins has significant implications for health. Because of their fat site ability, vitamins A, D, E, and Kay are stored in cells rich in lipids, where they are available on biological demand. For example, high doses of vitamin A can result in both trouble some symptoms such as fatigue and headache and then more serious ones such as blurred vision and liver damage. Although the toxic level on vitamin D is not known, similarly Alan this can result if too much vitamin D is adjusted. High-level zombies vitamins or not reached via diet rather, There is all of the excessive use of vitamin supplements. For most people, a balanced diet provides the necessary vitamins and minerals, Making vitamin supplements unnecessary. The one exception seems to be vitamin D, which is synthesized by the skin using the energy of sunlight, rather than adjusted. Many of the water soluble vitamins serve as co-enzymes, Molecules that work in conjunction with enzymes to enhance their activity. Members of the vitamin B family or particular adapt in acting to co enzymes. The synthesis of niacin in the body requires the central amino acid tryptophan. Some vitamins were discovered one observer is correlated diseases with the lack of specific foods. An insufficient supply vitamins leads to scurvy, A disease in which collagen, an important structural protein feeding British sailors limes and lime juice along the sea voyage is prevented the disease. Minerals or ions are ionic compounds that have a wide range of physiological functions. The. Our table and figure 11.20 displease the central dietary minerals. The medals exists in the body as cations. The nonmetals typically are presented as anions. The physiological function of minerals are widely diverse. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. Sodium is also essential for life but not in that excessive amounts supplied by the diets of than most people today. It The salt we eat does not necessarily come from the salt shaker. The major concern with access dietary sodium is its correlation with high blood pressure for some individuals. Oranges, bananas, tomatoes, potatoes all help supply the recommended daily requirement of 2 g of potassium. Sodium and potassium ions are close chemical cousins. The relative concentration of K+ and ┬áNA+ are specially important to the arithmetic competing of the heart. Individuals who take diuretics to control high blood pressure may also take potassium supplements to replace potassium excreted in the urine. However, supplements should be taken under a physician’s directions because they also can dramatically alter the potassium sodium balance in the body and lead to cardiac complications.

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