Acids are chemical substances that neutralizes alkalis and dissolve some metals. They have to with some very cool stuff such as burning though tough materials such as steel. Acid-base indicators are substances that change color when exposed to an acid or base. These are used sometimes in pools to calculate the right Ph levels. Bases neutralize acids, but still can be corrosive. It is like having to mad people, but when put together, they make each other happy. The pH is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. If the pH level is low, that means there is a high amount of acid, but if it is high, the acid is more neutral and less harmful. It is also possible for sulfuric acid to fall out of the sky when rain has a pH level lower than 5.6. Acid rain is one of the main causes for the destruction of statues and some buildings. I would like to pour acid onto something very tough and see what happens on the molecular level. This would be cool.
a – Carbon and nitrogen, same energy level and close in electron count.
b -Fluorine and neon, same energy level and close in electron count.
c -Oxygen and sulfur, closer together
d -Sodium and magnesium, closer in electron count.
e -Hydrogen and helium, closer together and same energy level.
a. Boron: 5 Zinc: 30
b. Boron: 5 Zinc: 30
c. Boron: Is^22s^22p^1 Zinc: 3d^10 4s^2
d. The metals on the left in the bottom row near Zinc might have chemical properties similar to Zinc.
a. 110 electrons.
c. It is very unstable, and radioactive.
7. Br is smaller, because it takes more energy to take away an electron (b4^-) from the atom.
This chem talk starts out by talking about atoms and how electrons can be gained and lost. The energy it takes to loose electrons or pull them away from an atom is known as the ionization energy. It is pretty weird though because it is said that it takes more energy to remove the second electron because it is more tightly bound to the nucleus. This was basically what we went over in class. The next section talked about atomic radii which was pretty cool because it explained how some atoms have a greater number of atoms. Next, was a confusing part about the number of energy levels in certain atoms and how they corresponded with each other. It then goes into further detail about how many electrons are in each energy level’s orbitals. This was probably the most confusing part of the read. It was then declared by Werner Heisenberg that it is impossible to calculate the exact position and momentum of an electron at the same time. This is why orbitals are used instead. Maybe one day someone will figure out how to determine the speed of an electron.
Checking Up 7:
3 x 10^8 / 434nm = 691,244 E
Blue light has more energy.
Chem to Go 3 and 6:
E3-E1: -1.51 – -13.60= 12.09
E3-E2: -1.51- -3.40= 1.89
12.09/1.89= 6.40 times as great
Electron Orbits and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
Niels Bohr is introduced in this chem talk as a well known and brilliant Danish Physicist. His proposal of the “planetary” model of the atom revolutionized the way the atom was looked at. It was seen that atoms, whether they were giving off light or heat, were always on a level orbiting the nucleus. It is kind of weird that electrons that are farther away from the nucleus have have a lot of energy, while on the other hand ones closer to the nucleus have less energy and are more stable. The electromagnetic system has to do with radiation, rays, and wavelengths. Things such as radios and x-rays have to do with this system. Gamma rays have short wavelengths, which are nearly invisible to the human eye, and have high frequencies. Radio waves have long wavelengths, but the lowest frequencies. All of the math shown in the talk was pretty confusing, but it just showed the size of wavelengths, revealing how small they really are. Basically, both light and radios share similar wave-like properties because of wavelength and frequency. I wonder why having long wavelengths enables sound to travel. Interesting.