Chem blog: SOLUTIONS THAT CONDUCT ELECTRICITY

ok. so, tonight’s chem talk will be primarily about solutions and what’s written there up in the title.

substances that dissolve in water to make solutions are called ELECTROLYTES. In order for a solution to be an electrolyte, they must have charged particles that are present and the charged particles must be able to move around. Charged particles formed in water are called IONS.

some more terms for tonights talk areeee

  • half cell: in electrochemical batteries, each of 2 cells that contains an electrode surrounded by a solution, 2 half cells are connected by a salt bridge
  • anode: – battery electrode that removes electrons in an electrical circuit. oxidation takes place in the anode terminal.
  • cathode: + battery electrode that receives electrons in an electrical circuit. reduction takes place in a cathode terminal
  • salt bridge: a lab device used to connect the oxidation and reduction half cells of an electrochemical cell. It allows excess negative ions to pass from the cathode to anode.

IMPORTANT FINAL THANG:

electricity only runs spontaneously in ONE direction in a battery!!!

goodnight to all and to all a good night zzz

HOW IS LIGHT PRODUCED CHEM TALK

Ahhh the nature of light

today’s chem talk revolves around light. it’s lit!! litterally. 

Some important words/terms to know are: electromagnetic radiation which is the energy that travels through space as waves

next comes… wavelength wooo! a wavelength is the distance between two corresponding points on a wave. 

speed of light, yeah it’s a real thing and not just a saying all of your old relatives compare things to.

speed of light is 3.00X10 to the power of 8 m/s (in a vacuum)

fre-quen-cy is the number of cycles of a wave that occur in a second

the energy of light is related to the frequency and when a wavelength increases, frequency decreases.

also, light that has a long wavelength has less energy than light that has a short wavelength.

how an atom produces light:

with the following

  • valence electrons: electrons contained in the outermost shell of an atom
  • excited state: state of an electron pf an atom that has absorbed enough energy to be raised to a higher energy sublevel
  • ground state: lowest energy sublevel that an electron of an atom can occupy
  • flourescence: process when an electron absorbs energy and moves up an energy level followed by rapid release of part of the energy as visible light when the electron returns to ground state
  • phosphorescence: the process when an electron absorbs energy and moves up an energy level.

That’s all for tonight!!

Peace and Blessings

Redox reactions chem talk!!!

Hellooo,

So today’s chem talk is about metals, ions, reducing, reacting, and all that other fun stuff in between.

First component: Metals

Properties * shiny, conduct electricity, conduct heat, withstand high temperatures, malleable, and built GR8 structures.

Fun fact: Most elements in da periodic table are metals!!

Starting with medieval times, chemists have since been able to figure out where a metal belongs in the activity series

Special terms of the day include: Oxidation-reduction reaction, or redox which is a chemical change in which electrons are transferred from one substance to another. Oxidation is a loss of electrons and reduction is a gain of electrons!!

When is a metal not a metal, might you ask? HY-DRO-GEN. Basically, just because it is listed in the metal activity series does not automatically make it a metal. The main reason that they are included is because the acids that hydrogen helps make are reagents that can quickly establish where an unknown metal is in the series.

THE END 🙂

Stoichiometry chem talk !!!

Currently sitting in study hall writing a chem talk for tomorrow AM.

Basically, today’s daily dose of chem involves terms like moles, molar mass, stoichiometry, etc. Btw I don’t mean moles as in the animal or things on peoples’ skin

And now I’ll break ’em down.

First comes a mole which is a counting word used to count large amounts of teensy tiny objects! Important part: one mole of anything must be the same quantity. One mole has an equal mass to its atomic OR molecular mass in grams.  

Term numba two would be molar mass which is the mass of one mole of a pure substance. I.e. from my textbook: “one mole of oxygen molecules has a mass of 32.00 .g. This is the molar mass of an oxygen molecule”

STP aka standard temp. and pressure= the standard temp. is 273.15 kelvins and standard pressure is 760 mm Hg. When temp of gas is increased, the volume occupied by gas increases too, they always follow each other!

Next comes Stoichiometry which is the study of the relationships mass-mole-volume among substances involved in chemical reactions. A stoichiometric calculation is when you calculate the number of moles of one chemical in a reaction based on the number of moles of one of the other chemicals in a balanced chem. equation. Coefficients in the equation set the proportions. The ratios for proportions NEVA EVA CHANGE!! This is because compounds have fixed formulas or proportions.

Moles MUST be converted into something you can actually measure. You can use the stoichiometric method to convert a known mass of whichever chemical or volume of gas into moles then convert your answer in moles back to grams or liters if gas.

Finalllly we have percent yield and dimensional analysis!

Percent yield= ratio of the product recovered to the product expected expressed as a %

dimensional analysis= method for solving problems that involve cancelling units.

bye!

Ch 4 sec 1 chem talk

Helloooo and happy spring!

Today I’m gonna talk about alloys and their properties, according to my textbook. First we have this thing called the electron-sea model of metals which basiacallllly is a model for how all the teensy tiny atoms in a metal bond together. On a larger scale, there is a whole metal crystal which is where the cations stay since metals don’t really have the best hold on their electrons. Since the electrons are so free, the atoms are moving passed each other when a metal object is hammered and this is what we call… Malleability!!! What is an alloy might you ask? The LITERAL textbook definition is that an alloy is a substance that has the properties of a metal, but consists of two or more elements like brass or bronze. Now onto the très amigos of the steel family: Annealed, hardened, and tempered. Annealed = less carbon atoms, more malleability, more pliable. Hardened = brittle and hard. Tempered= steel that has properties of both annealed and hardened.

Chem Talk 7 ch 3

EARLY USES OF DYES!!! WHOOO!!

What is a dye might you ask? a dye is defined as a group of organic molecules that bond directly to a textile to produce a color. Dyes have been around since like, 3500 BCE which is a crazyyyy long time. Dyes originally were made based from things like animal, vegetable, and minerals but using those materials were tricky because the results in washing them varied vastly.  A CHROMOPHORE is the part of a dye molecule that allows us to see color, so that’s pretty cool. Groups of atoms within an organic molecule absorb certain colors of light. An AUXOCHROME modifies the chromophone’s ability to absorb light energy. Natural dye usually fades away from materials when exposed to light and too much washing. When we use lakes aka an insoluble salt complex, it is less likely to lose its color due to it being less water soluble than natural dyes. Today, most dyes are synthetically made 🙁 but on the bright side your pink shirt will stay pink for as long as you may wish!!!!

Chem talk ch 3 sec 6

In today’s chem talk, the chemistry of color pigments were discussed!!!!! riveting stuff for a monday night.

So basically, the precipitates that we observed in our groups are also known as insoluble compounds which means  few things: they can be used as pigments to make paints look really pretty when mixed with different liquids  (aka binders) to get different consistencies i.e. water colors, oil, egg, etc. Double-replacement reactions take place in aqueous solutions (usually) and form when certain cations and anions combine and when they are in separate solutions then combined they become precipitates. PRECIPITATES ARE IONIC COMPOUNDS aka a salt. There’s also a list of 6 simple rules to cover for Solubility of Ionic compounds that go over basic normalcies that help in chemistry. soluble= dissolves in water even if large amount, insoluble= does not dissolve in water. The properties of  a pigment really depend on what kind of paint the artist wants to work with and which binder they feel works for what they’re creating. For water color painting, a more soluble pigment is better, but for oils, a blendable yet thicker pigment is better to get a rich and even consistency in the paint. that is all for tonight!

Chem Talk Numero 5

Hello! So tonight’s chem talk entails a lot of stuff about clay, ceramics, and such. 

some ceramic materials are: mugs, cereal bowls, vases, nick nacks, candle holders, coasters, ornaments etc. 

Some properties of ceramic materials, like plaster, that make them so useful are that they can have other materials and substances added to them to increase their strength, it can be mixed with water to create a paste which makes it a versatile material.

when a potter fires pottery, the effect on the pottery is that the clay hydrate loses all of its H2O content and becomes an anhydrate when the fire dries up the water in the clay.

 

Alloys Properties

The electrons are moving in the electron-sea model of metals, but aren’t assigned to any one cation!!! The metals have a crystal structure with an edge like salt. The structure has a sea of valence electrons surrounding the cations.  Since they’re able to move around, it means they’re malleable.  An alloy is a substance that has the properties of a metal, but consists of two or more elements. There are different types of steel: annealed, hardened, and tempered. Annealed is softer and more malleable. Hardened steel is hard and brittle. And tempered steel has properties of both.