Let’s take a quick minute talk about how freaking hot is right now. I have three fans on and I still feel like I have caught heat stroke. Anyway on to chemistry.
So the first page is talking about surroundings and systems which is great because we talked a bit about it in class already. However Mr.Desbois failed to mention that there are two different kinds of systems, open and closed. Or maybe he did mention it and I am just totally blanking. The book actually describes these two very well. An open system is heat can easily flow out whereas it says a closed system can not have heat escape. Like the book says I can imagine that would be extremely hard to achieve as even with thermos bottles they dont stay warm or cold forever. I have heard of bottles and such that can keep things warm for a few days or maybe a week MAYBE. But beyond that? That is insane. The book talks about the law of conservation of energy and I find it super easy to understand. It makes perfect sense to me. I mean where else would energy go? And even if you could destroy energy it would take so much energy to do that it wouldn’t even make sense. I feel like now that I think of it, is anything really destroyable? I mean you can make things smaller and not visible to the human eye but I am very curious if you can ACTUALLY destroy anything permentaly without turning it into another material. This section is super long which is really unfortunate for me beacuse as I said earlier it is super hot and I feel sick. I really want to go to bed but I am going to keep reading. So I realized this morning that I accidentally did the wrong chem to go questions and did the ones from 4.8 so I had to do the other ones in class. However that makes understanding this section a lot easier because I already read a lot of it last night. It has a lot of new information and equations which the book explains pretty well but I am still a little stuck on. For the Gibbs free energy equation I don’t understand how you can find delta S. I understand that in an equation it could say like liquid in the first part of the equation and gas in the second part. But how can you find a specific number to use in an equation? I will have to ask these questions in class.
So I must admit I am super sick right now and my head is killing me. I am exhausted and feel like I am gonna puke so I am so NOT feeling this hw right now. That said you gotta put in the work where it is due. So I am going to try my hardest and hope for the best.
- So contrary to popular belief spontaneous actually in this sense means a change that continues to occur after it begins. So although many people think it means instantaneous change it is kind of that plus continuous occurrence.
- To tell if a reaction in spontaneous one must be able to see if it 1) is gives or absorbs heat energy in the change and 2) if the particles become more or less disorganised in the change.
- To tell if a change is endothermic or exothermic you have to look at locations of the heat energy when it starts and when it finishes. If it absorbs the heat energy it is endothermic, I think of it like the heat is going inward towards the reaction, if it is exothermic the reaction gives off heat or expels it.
- I suppose I answered this question in the previous answer. The energy is heat energy and depending on the reaction (endo versus exo). In endothermic reactions, the change draws heat from surroundings. The book doesn’t really say where the exothermic energy comes from but I would guess it comes from the electrons jumping up energy levels and then falling down when the solutions mix.
- The scientists used catalysts and electrolytes such as iron and salt. They used catalysts to provide lower activations energies which give materials and solutions more energy and quicker reaction time. They used electrolytes to move electrons away from metals such as magnesium to oxidise the metal/mg faster.
- Oops, again I already explained the answer in my previous answer. A catalyst provides lower activation energies which give materials and solutions more energy and hence quicker reaction time.
- The pathway with the catalyst is a more direct route to the product. The reactants and the products are the same but one route, the catalyst route, clearly gets there faster.
In this section everything was super useful in life. Now someone could argue that any science is useful in life, but in this Chem Talk it gave us direct examples outside of the classroom which made is a lot easier to understand. The main idea was heat reactions. Like when you crack the little piece of metal in some hot packs and the liquid turns to a solid and gets super warm. The whole question was what kind of reactions are spontaneous and how do they occur? The book pretty much simplified it down a lot and said a reaction is spontaneous if it releases energy and causes more disorder in particles. I found this dumbed down explanation really easy to understand and helpful for thinking about spontaneous heat reactions. On the next page the book gave a bullet point list of all the main ideas and points in the section. This was probably just a genius idea by the authors because they understand that sometimes teenagers do not want to read the entire section or are not “really” reading it well enough to understand the content. This made it so I was able to understand the key points of what I read just in case I wasn’t paying enough attention when I read it the first time. The last part was endothermic versus exothermic reactions which is pretty much the only things I remember from middle school science. Endothermic is when the energy goes inwards versus exothermic is when it goes outwards. Now after reading the section about endothermic and exothermic reactions and it turns out that pretty much I am incorrect about my explanation of reactions. I mean I suppose my answer could be viable but it is super dumbed down. These reactions have more to do with the relative locations of energy so inward and outward are technically locations but eh. Overall this was a pretty simple chapter which was a nice break from the confusion the other sections bring.
This section was about solutions that conduct electricity. In it, it talked a lot about electrolytes. So apparently electrolytes are and I’ll quote this from the book “Substances that dissolve in water to make solutions that conduct electricity”(336 Active Chemistry). Now I have heard of electrolytes before but mainly because I hear that Gatorade restores the electrolytes in your body that you lose when you workout. Now I do not know how you lose electrolytes but I suppose this means that Gatorade has substances in it that conduct electricity. Fascinating. Some other vocab words that book uses are anodes and cathodes, which I feel like in my head I am pronouncing both of them wrong. OHH so these are just the half cells where reduction and oxidation take place, it is really what we already learned in class except Mr.Desbois used different words to explain it. The last term “Salt Bridge” sounded like a made up term. I really didn’t understand what they were talking about in this part so I will have to ask questions about it in class.
This entire section was on metals which is great because we have covered the topic a lot and I mean a LOT this year. In class and in earlier sections we have talked about the properties of metals so I felt that this first part of the Chem Talk was extremely easy to comprehend. Oxidation or rusting as I like to think of it to make it easier to understand was also discussed in this segment. I got a little bit tripped up on the reduction part. The book said that reduction is receiving electrons and that an oxidation equation turned backwards represents an oxidation. I don’t understand this because how would the beginning of the equation be “receiving” electrons? Wait actually, in class Mr.Desbois talked about how the most reactive element is the one that is neutral at the beginning of the equation, maybe it is talking about how it gains electrons when moving to more positive or negative? That would make sense. The end of the talk touched on When is a Metal Not a Metal? This immediately caught my attention, because I, of course, go right to thinking “What the heck does this mean, how is a metal not a metal?!” After reading it, I realized really the authors were not talking about metals not being metals but more of hydrogen imitating a metal in certain cases. I feel betrayed because I think they mislead me with the title and I thought it was going to be a lot more exciting. In this certain case they are discussing, they are talking about when hydrogen takes on the positivity that metals normally would. Hydrogen only does this in strong acids like HCl and NaCl. Overall this section was pretty much just going over things we have already learned so I felt it was a nice break from the more difficult things.
I am already liking the look of this section because there are not a ton of equations like the last section that was literally titled “balancing equations”. The first bold word I see is molar mass which we have talked about already, it is simply the “weight” of molecules. Next the book is talking about moles which we have talked about too! In class we talked about how big moles really are and it still baffles me that anything is that big. I see the word stoichiometry and it makes me laugh because whenever my dad asks about how I am doing in chemistry, he’s like “Are you doing stoichiometry? Moles?” Honestly, I thinks those are just the only thing he remembers the name of. Not gonna lie, reading past that I am getting really confused, I really don’t like it when we read the section before starting the lab because it makes a lot less sense then. I think it is about the calculation of moles and the prediction of them in an equation? Although TBH I am not 100% sure, when am I ever in this class AM I RIGHT? LOL, I feel like this is super not okay to be writing in a blog, I’ll be seeing scolding comments from Mr.Desbois. Anyway back to the section, the bottom paragraph is titled “Stoichiometry in the Real World” which is amazing because my favorite question to ask teachers is “how will we actually use this in life” so I was excited to learn that somehow you can use this stuff to cure diseases which I feel like sounds like a lie so I am stoked to learn more in class.
I have to say it’s really cool to read over something you didn’t understand a week ago and now just totally get it.
I just finished all the problems and I redact the previous statement because I am still confused on what is happening. LOL
- Polarity is the amount of electronegativity a molecule has. This relates to and the difference in polities between it and another molecule and the type of bond it forms with that molecule.
- I remember talking about dispersion in class but I can’t find my notes on it because I think I put it under a different name. I am going to have to ask someone tomorrow morning to check but I am pretty sure it is the type of bonds with the molecules.
- I got a bit confused on this one too but I think the answer is c7h16 because there are more bonds and that means more intramolecular forces.
- B) is correct because methane’s intermolecular forces are weaker which is is why at only room temperature it is a gas. The molecules with the highest melting and boiling points have stronger intermolecular bonds and forces.
Right away I see “Characteristics of Solids, Liquids and Gases” which is awesome because we talked a ton about this in the beginning of the year and I did really well on it then. The section focused on intermolecular forces and kinetic molecular motion. I find it weird we are reading this section as this is not what we are talking about at all in class right now. Too be fair I wasn’t in class today so we probably went over it then. Yesterday in class, we talked about Geometries which I found super fun. For some reason they just made sense to me. Mr.Desbois would hold up a molecule and we would have to say what kind of ionic and molecular geometry it was. The only hard part for me, was remembering the names of all of the geometries because there were some weird names that were longer. Back to the section, it was kind of confusing for me since we haven’t gone over it in class yet and Mr.Desbois usually does a clear explanation of the new information. I understood what the book was talking about when it talked about the shapes of the states of matter and their kinetic energy and sizes of molecules in each state. A lot of the Chem Talk was actually just review from what we learned in the Fall. I thought it was pretty obvious that you can change a state of matter by applying or removing heat. I am still a bit confused on the charges and electronegativity thing so I am glad it will not be on the test one Monday.
In class we have been talking and working a lot with equations. All of which have to do with precipitate equations and just precipitates in general. Shoutout to Mr.Desbois for giving us the most helpful piece of paper ever. He gave a sheet that pretty much tells us whether certain elements are known to be soluble or insoluble. On that sheet there was still room for me to take notes in our classes mini review mesh that had to do with precipitates. All of the equations were a bit confusing at first with including ions and having to learn the right form of the equations. After a many tries and poor Mr.Desbois having to explain it just about a thousand times, I finally got the hang of it. The Chem Talk in the chemistry book alines perfectly with what we are talking about in class, of course which was Mr.Desbois idea. In both, we are talking about Lewis Dot Structures, i don’t know if that’s supposed to be capitalized. I personally, really enjoy these and find them fun and easy to understand/do. However, theres a new way we are supposed to be doing them, with counting electrons and other steps that I wish we had learned when we started drawing the dot structures in the first place. It is really confusing to learn how to do something one way and then have to learn to do it a complete different way, especially when the first way was easier. All of the informations on bonding was stuff we had already learned earlier in the year, during the first time we did dot structures. Now, however, the book is adding in 3D dot structures which is just turning 2D into 3D. I feel as if our artistic ability is judged a little more in this section as angles and lines mean a lot more in our drawings. The “shapes” of our molecules have to be very specific which is hard for me as I am not very good at drawing. Overall, Lewis Dot Structures and drawing bonds is one of my favorite topics in Chemistry. For some reason I just totally understand them and find them a lot of fun. If only my artistic abilities were more than sub par.
By just doing a quick glance over the section I see the talk of Cation and Anions which I love! Although I must admit I have to mentally remind myself to say CAT ION and not “Cashone”. I also see a lot of equations which I am not too fond of. There seems to be a lot of new stuff in this section which I like because YAY new knowledge, but that I also know is going to mean a little more work in homework and in class.
So after reading this section, I am a little less frightened of all of the equations and new materials. It turns out that all of the equations were just showing the substances created when we mixed two compounds as we did in class. I enjoy this section as well as the lab we are doing in class because like all the other experiments, it is hands on, but also it is exactly what I imagined chemistry like as a kid. We are getting to mix different compounds to see if there is a controlled reaction or not. I find it invigorating to learn that somehow there is a way to make something an entirely different substance or state of matter out of something else! I like how we read these sections and do blog posts, after we start the lab. Doing a bit of the lab and learning some of the material beforehand, makes the reading easier to comprehend and easier to blog about. My favorite part of the section was definitely when the gave us a set of “Simple” Rules about solubility of ionic compounds in water. These rules were definitely not simple enough for an everyday samaritan to answer, but luckily for me, I was able to figure them out.